1. Common sense for the safe use of hand tools
1. Safety rules for carrying hand tools
2. Hand Tool Handle Precautions
Secondly, safety rules for working with hand tools
1. Metal cutting tools
(3) hand saw
(4) Taps and pullers
2. Woodworking tools
(1) Ax and adze
(4) Claw Hammer
3. Build Tools
(1) When carrying hand tools, they should be placed in special cases, tool bags or tool buckets, not in underwear pockets, let alone belts.
(2) For temporarily unused tools, the storage location must be suitable and the placement must be stable so that they cannot easily fall and cause harm to people. Do not place them on scaffolding, hanging pipes and mechanical moving parts. .
(3) Workers should pass tools by hand without dropping them; when handing over a tool with a sharp edge, the handle must be turned towards the person receiving the tool.
(4) For tools such as crowbars that need to be carried on the shoulder, pay attention to the front, back, left, and right sides when carrying so that they do not collide with other objects and people, and be stable when lowered .
(5) When carrying a portable power tool with a cord, care should be taken to protect the cord and keep it away from sharp objects, heat sources, oil or solvents so as not to damage the cord.
2. Hand Tool Handle Precautions
(1) The shank of a tool struck by a hammer is prone to local fragmentation after a long impact, so a metal hoop (bronze ring) such as a chisel, a puncher, a puncher, etc. should be installed at the end of the shank.
(2) For hand tools requiring a wooden handle, the wooden handle must be made from hardwoods (e.g. oak, elm, walnut, acacia, maple, etc.). Wooden handles should have a smooth surface and be free of knots, cracks and other defects.
(3) The connection between the wooden handle, hammer head and ax head must be strong and durable to prevent the wooden handle from breaking or the hammer head flying out during use. use, it must be immediately wedged; it is attached only with wedges, and it is more important that the wooden handle fits well with the opening of the equipment.
(4) To prevent the wooden handle from spinning and slipping in the hand, the wooden handle must be made oval.
①Chisels are chiselling tools, usually made of carbon steel, and HSS cannot be used as a chisel. The hardness after heat treatment is HRC48-52, bit tip hardening is not allowed, cracks and burrs are not allowed.
② Generally, the chisel is used to cut the burr on the surface of the workpiece, the flat chisel (wide chisel) can be used for pouring, riser and splitting material, the pointed chisel (narrow chisel) can be used to cut the groove with the chisel and split the curved sheet;
③The chisel holding method and operation must be correct. The chisel should be held with the middle, ring and little fingers of the left hand, the thumb and forefinger should be naturally closed, and the chisel head should protrude about 20 mm to reduce vibration from hitting the opponent with the chisel. , the chisel should not be too tight.
④When chiseling, start lightly chiseling from the sharp corner of the working side, and then work along the entire edge after chiseling the gap, otherwise the chisel will easily bounce or slide off; when cutting at a distance of 10 mm from the end of the workpiece, turn it around and cut it out with a chisel.
⑤ To prevent the hammer from hitting the hand when the hammer slides off the end of the chisel, a foam rubber pad can be placed over the handle of the chisel handle; to prevent injury from flying fragments or fragments of people, the operator must work in protective glasses. The platform shall be provided with a steel mesh guard.
⑥The tip of the chisel should be slightly spherical. If there are burrs and curls, they should be cut off in time so that the impact force passes through the center line of the chisel.
The file is made of T13 or T12 high carbon steel, and the hardness after hardening is HRC62-67.
The file is divided into three categories: regular file, special file and plastic file. Ordinary sawdust is divided into flat, square, round, semicircular and triangular. There are also coarse files, fine files, double files and oil files.
①The file must be used with a pen, otherwise the tip of the file may hurt the hand, wrist or other parts of the body.
②Usually hold the file handle firmly with your right hand, hold or hold the front end of the file with your left hand, press the file evenly with both hands; so as not to break the file knife; the speed of the file should not be too fast, usually 20-60 times per minute is fine.
③Prevent the grease from contaminating the file and file handle, and the workpiece surface must not be contaminated with grease to prevent the file from slipping and accidents.
④Do not blow the chips with your mouth when sawing, so that the chips do not get into your eyes, do not remove the chips with your hands, so that the chips do not pierce your fingers and palms. .
⑤ After the file is used, it should be placed correctly and not overlapped so as not to damage the file; when placed on the operating table, do not open the table to prevent falling and hurting the legs.
⑥ It is strictly forbidden to use the file as other tools, as well as a flat shovel or crowbar, in order to prevent it from breaking and causing harm to people.
(3) hand saw
Hand saw blades are mainly made from carbon tool steel and alloy tool steel and are hardened by heat treatment. When using a hand saw, the main cause of injury is a broken saw blade.
①The saw blade should be properly selected according to the hardness and thickness of the material to be cut;
②The workpiece to be cut must be clamped, there must be no displacement or vibration during sawing, the cutting line must be close to the reference point of the workpiece.
③When sawing, straighten the nose of the saw to prevent misalignment. The starting angle of the saw should not exceed 15°. If the angle is too large, the saw teeth will be easily caught in the workpiece.
④When sawing, push the saw forward with both hands to properly increase the force; when sawing backwards, slightly raise the hand saw without applying force. The magnitude of the force should be determined depending on the hardness of the workpiece: the harder the workpiece, the greater the force and the less hardness.
⑤When installing or replacing a new saw blade, make sure that the tooth tip of the saw blade points forward; when cutting, you should hold it with your hands so as not to fall and hurt your legs.
(4) Taps and pullers
Taps and wrenches are tools for cutting internal and external screws. Usually made from tool steel or high speed steel, hardened and tempered by heat treatment. Taps are divided into two types: hand taps and machine taps; pull teeth include round pull teeth and cylindrical pull teeth for pipe threads.
①When threading, the end hole should be chamfered, the tap should be coaxial with the hole in the workpiece, at the beginning of threading, axial pressure should be applied to make the tap cut, and after a few revolutions, axial force should not be applied.
②When the gauge part of the tap enters the screw hole, it must be retracted 1/4~1/2 turn every half turn up to one turn, so that the chips break and then fall; hole, it is necessary to frequently turn the tap to remove chips.
③ Coolant should be added when threading steel workpieces, and a little kerosene can be added when threading cast iron workpieces; threaded holes.
④When threading, the end of the workpiece must be beveled, and the end face of the puller must be perpendicular to the axis of the workpiece; axial pressure must be applied at the start of threading, and rotational pressure must be correspondingly greater; when the puller cuts a thread on the workpiece, do not push it harder.
⑤ When threading, in order to break up the chips and remove them in time, the teeth should be changed frequently.
⑥The workpiece must be firmly fixed on the clamps and fixtures, if the tap breaks, do not touch the broken place with your hands, but pick it out with a chisel or punch, wear safety glasses.
The cutting knife is a knife that uses two wedge-shaped blades that move relative to each other to shape and cut thin lamellar materials. A shearing knife with appropriate specifications should be selected according to the thickness of the material to be sheared and the shape of the workpiece, so as to prevent the knife from chipping due to overload. Generally, you can use straight hand shears for straight, small and short cuts, through shears for straight and long workpieces, hole shears for internal curves, hand looms for thicker cuts.
①Do not push the workpiece too close to the shear axis, because the notch hole is large, the workpiece easily slides out when the shear force is applied to it, which may cause injury; effective at a blade angle of 14°. Suitable for cutting, labor-saving and non-slip.
②When cutting, do not touch the edge of the just cut workpiece with your hands, so as not to injure your hands with sharp burrs. Operators must wear protective canvas or leather gloves when handling or holding workpieces.
③When using scissors to trim the corners or cracks of the metal sheet, the operator must wear goggles to prevent debris from flying out and hurting the eyes.
④When cutting, the workpiece must be well clamped to prevent the workpiece from rotating and hurting people after being loaded; do not put the pipe on the scissor handle to lengthen the scissor handle.
A scraper is a surface treatment tool with a sharp edge. Most of them are made of carbon steel or rolling bearing steel, and some are equipped with carbide cutting heads. It is generally divided into two types: flat scraper and curved scraper, which should be accurately selected according to the surface of the workpiece.
①The scraper should be equipped with a strong and smooth handle. Because the scraping force is strong, if the handle falls or breaks, it may cause injury; especially when using the direct scraping method, the tail of the scraper should be equipped with a smooth handle with a large contact surface to prevent injury. operator, abdomen or other parts of the body.
②When the scraper is not in use, it should be placed in a place where it is not easy to fall off to prevent injury or damage to the scraper when dropped; Do not put the scraper in the tool bag with other hand tools and store them separately.
③The workpiece to be cleaned must be stable and secure, and the height and position suitable for the work of the personnel. When cleaning, the workpiece to be cleaned must not move or slide.
2. Woodworking tools
(1) Ax and adze
Axes and adzes are the main tools of carpenters. An ax with one blade is good for chopping, an ax with a double-edged blade is good for chopping. Teslas are mainly used for cuttinglarge wooden planes.
① Always keep the blades of axes and adzes sharp so that the blades do not cut into the wood. Axes and adzes with blunt blades can slip on the surface of the wood and injure people's legs or feet during use.
②When cutting horizontally, the wood should be attached to the workbench with the cutting side up, and both hands should hold the ax handle firmly; when using an ax, use light force, control the direction of the falling ax and the size of the force, and gradually increase the force to grind.
③ When chopping, pay attention to the movement arc of the ax and adze. Within this movement arc, there should be no obstacles such as steel wire, iron wire, rattan, branches, etc., so as to prevent the ax and adze from getting caught. Slip and cause injury, be careful when using the adze and be sure to cut steadily.
④When felling on the ground, the operator must wear safety shoes; wooden bars should be placed under the chopped wood; secure the wood to prevent it from slipping and hurting the operator's feet and legs.
⑤ Pay attention to ensure that the connection between the ax and the handle is always strong, so that the ax does not fly out and cause harm to people;
There are many kinds of sawing tools used in woodworking, which are divided into: frame saw (also called frame saw, coarse saw, medium saw, thin saw, winding saw, large saw, etc.), horizontal saw, knife saws, inverted saws, panel saws, narrow hand saws, wire saws, etc.
① Before using the band saw, adjust the handle to adjust the angle of the saw blade. Generally, it should be 45° with respect to the plane of the wooden frame. Pull the hinged rope to make the saw blade straight and tight; Hold the saw handle firmly with your right hand, press with your left hand at the starting point, gently press and pull several times, and do not apply too much force; do not twist left and right when sawing, be heavy when sending the saw and light when lifting the saw, and the rhythm of pushing and pulling should be uniform; When the quick cut is finished, the part to be sawn must be firmly held by the hand. After use, loosen the saw blade and hang it securely.
②When using the crosscut saw, the force of both hands must be balanced to prevent the saw from moving to the side with more force; when correcting the deviation, the deviation should be corrected slowly to prevent the saw blade from jamming or broken.
③When using a wire saw, the force should not be too strong and the speed of the saw should not be too high, so as not to break the wire. When sawing, the operator's head should not be at the upper end of the nose frame, so as not to injure the face if the steel wire breaks.
④ Always check your sharpfrom the saw blade and the strength of the saw frame and handle; repair saw blades with blunt teeth and uneven slopes in time, and repair damage to cables, nuts, handles, knobs and wooden frames, which must be repaired and restored in time before they can be used.
A chisel is a tool for drilling holes, making grooves and cutting narrow parts. Divided into flat chisel, oblique chisel, round chisel and so on. A flat chisel should be used for chiseling square holes and cutting, a bevel chisel should be used for chamfering, grooving and narrow parts, and a special round chisel should be used for chiselling round holes or curved parts.
① Before chiselling, place the wood on the workbench. When chiselling, hold the chisel handle firmly with one hand and do not swing the chisel to the left and right, so that the hammer will not slip and hurt your hands.
②The handle of the chisel should be made of solid sandalwood, beech and oak. To prevent the end of the handle from fluffing or cracking upon impact, a protective iron hoop should be installed at the end. the handle he hit.
③ When chiselling, always pay attention to the strength of the hammer handle and chisel handle, so that the hammer head does not fly off and cause harm to people; do not use a wooden chisel as a hacking tool; details.
(4) Claw Hammer
①In order to drive a nail directly into the wood, the top of the hammer must be perpendicular to the axis of the nail during operation and not deviate, otherwise the nail will bend easily.
②To drive the nail into the wood smoothly, the first few hammers should be lightly tapped to keep the nail straight into the wood to a certain depth, and the last few hammers can be a little harder to keep the nail from bending. body.
③When driving nails into hard woods, you must first drill a small hole in the wood according to the specification of the nail, and then nail it to prevent the nail from bending or splitting.
④ The claw hammer should not be used as a picking tool, and attention should be paid to the flatness and integrity of the hammer surface to prevent the nails from flying out or the hammer slipping off and causing harm to people.
3. Build Tools
Assembly tools typically include screwdrivers, adjustable wrenches, open-end wrenches, integral wrenches, hex keys, socket wrenches, pin pullers, wrenches, and bearing tools.
The wrench is mainly used to tighten hex screws, square screws and various nuts. Made from tool steel, alloy steel or ductile iron. Usually divided into general, special and special three categories. When using a key with appropriate specificationsami should be selected according to the shape, specification and operating conditions of the screws and nuts.
①Adjustable wrench, consisting of a wrench body, a fixed jaw, a movable jaw and a worm, is a universal wrench. Its hole size can be adjusted within a certain range, so screws and nuts can usually be used within the hole size range. However, it is also not possible to use a large wrench to tighten smaller screws, which will cause the screws to break due to excessive torque; the hole must be adjusted according to the size of the opposite side of the hexagon. screw head or hex nut, and the gap should not be too large, otherwise it will be damaged. This will damage the screw head or nut, and it is easy to slip off, resulting in injury; the fixed jaws should be subjected to the main force, and the wrench handle should be pulled firmly towards the operator, not pushed forward. The wrench should be used as an impact tool.
②Standard wrench (open-end wrench), socket wrench, lock wrench and hex wrench are called special wrenches. Its characteristic is that the single head can only screw one size screw head or nut, while the double head can only screw two sizes screw head or nut; if the contact is bad, it will be easy to slip off, making the operator's body unbalanced, the socket wrench should also be used after the contact. key, pay attention to choosing the appropriate specification and model to prevent slipping and hurting your hands.
③Ratchet wrench and torque wrench are special wrenches made according to special requirements. They should be used correctly according to the product manual, or the force should be adjusted according to the indicator.
A screwdriver is a special tool used to tighten or loosen grooved head screws. Tool parts are made of carbon tool steel and hardened. Generally divided into four types: standard screwdriver, angle screwdriver, Phillips screwdriver, quick screwdriver.
①A suitable screwdriver should be selected according to the groove width and groove shape of the screw head to be tightened or loosened; a smaller screwdriver cannot be used to tighten a larger screw; a Phillips screwdriver is used to tighten or loosen the head Phillips head screw; angle head screwdriver for screw heads in confined spaces.
②If the edge of the screwdriver is damaged or dull, it should be ground at any time.PWhen grinding with a grinding wheel, it should be cooled with water. A screwdriver that cannot be repaired should be discarded if the edge of the screwdriver is severely damaged, deformed, cracked, or the handle is damaged.
③Do not use a screwdriver to tighten or loosen the screws on the workpiece that you are holding. The workpiece must be clamped in the fixture to prevent injury.
④Do not use the method of hitting the end of the screwdriver handle with a hammer to open a gap or remove metal burrs and other objects.
Hand pliers are special tools used to clamp workpieces or workpiece shears. Sponges are not fixed. On the surface of the sponges there are notches and cutting edges, so they are also called pliers. The other is the electrician's hand-held pliers, which are mainly used for cutting wires.
Do not use pliers as a wrench. When cutting the short end of the wire, in order to prevent injury to people, the short end must face the ground, and the operator must wear safety glasses; the handle of the electrician's pliers must be insulated with a set.
The hammer is the main impact tool, which is composed of a hammer head and a hammer handle. The material of the hammer head is mainly No. 45 steel. Depending on the workpiece to be processed, the hammer head is also a soft hammer, made of lead, copper, rubber, plastic or wood. The weight of the hammer must match the workpiece, material and function, too heavy or too light will not be safe. Therefore, in order to be safe, when using a hammer, you need to choose the right hammer and master the speed of impact.
When using a hand hammer, remember that the connection between the hammer head and the hammer handle must be tight. If it is slightly loose, it should be tightened immediately with a wedge or the hammer handle replaced. The length of the hammer handle should be moderate, the appropriate length is for holding the hammer head, and the length of the handguard is equal to the length of the hand hammer, the hand swing method should be used, when using the hand swing method, attention should be paid to the arc of the hammer head movement, and the hammer handle should not be contaminated with grease.
When using a sledgehammer, you should pay attention to the following points:
① The connection between the hammer head and the handle must be strong. If the hammer head and hammer handle are loose or the hammer handle is split or cracked, it cannot be used. If the hammer head and hammer handle are wedged in the mounting hole, then it is better to use a metal wedge, and the length of the wedge should not be more than 2/3 of the depth of the mounting hole.
②In order to have a certain degree of flexibility on impact, the middle of the handle at the top is slightly narrower than the end.
③When using a sledgehammer, attention should be paid tothrown back and forth, left and right, up and down Standing people are strictly prohibited in the range of motion of the sledgehammer, and it is not allowed to hit each other with the sledgehammer. a sledgehammer and a small hammer.
④ Hardening of the hammer head is not allowed, cracks and burrs are not allowed, and burrs and burrs must be repaired in a timely manner.
Pass tools from hand to hand, don't fly or hurt people;
It is safe to use the tool and return it to its place after use safely.